Special Pathogens Research Network [Spparenet]Ltd

Publication Page

Selected Publication:

1. Agwu E., Ihongbe JC, Ezeonwumelu JOC, Moazzam ML. Baseline burden and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria recovered from oral lesions of HIV/AIDS patients in South-Western Uganda. Oral Science International, (in press, March 2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1348-8643(15)00018-X  

 2. Dafewhare EO, Agwu E, Ezeonwumelu JOC, Shaban A. (2013). A Review of Clinical Manifestations of Gangrene in Western Uganda in: Gangrene Management - New Advancements and Current Trends; Intech publishers, http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/55862


Impact: This paper outlined the magnitude of superficial gangrene and contains surrogate diagnostic data which has now broadened the index of clinical suspicion in the regional diagnosis of gangrene. This paper significantly impacted on the capacity of healthcare providers to detect, manage, prevent and control gangrene in resource limited settings.  

3. Ekanem PE, Ajaye MA, Ekanem M, Agwu E, (2013). Impact assessment of Diabetes on gangrene in South Western Uganda I: Gangrene Management - New Advancements and Current Trends; Intech publishers, http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/56107

 Impact: This paper showed how: diabetes determined the spread of gangrene and how poor diabetic service uptake, poor information storage and retrieval, poor health facilities, poor socio-economy, demography and cultural background of participants significantly impacted on the epidemiology of diabetic gangrene in this region. This paper therefore has policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications.

 4. Agwu E, Dafiewhare OE and Ekanem PE (2011). Possible Diabetic-Foot Complications in Sub-Saharan Africa, Global Perspective on Diabetic Foot Ulcerations, Thanh Dinh (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-727-7, InTech, Fom http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/ 

 Impact: This study outlined peripheral nephropathy, vaginal candidiasis, urinary tract infection, skin Infection and obesity among others, frequently complicated diabetic foot and limited diabetic serves clinics worsened by poor up-take of few available ones by the community made it difficult to confirm the true picture of diabetic foot in the studied population and area. It became clear after this publication that absence of specialized diabetic clinics and limited resources may have negatively impacted on our current knowledge of the disease epidemic in the locality.  


5, Adiukwu PC, Kayanja FIB, Nambatya G, Adzu B, Twinomujuni S, Twikirize O, Ganiyu AA, Uwiduhaye E, Agwu E, Tanayen JK, Nuwagira P and Buzaare P. [2013] Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Pyretic Activity of the Leaf, Root and Saponin Fraction from British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 4(2): 33-40,


Impact: This paper showed that the validation of anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activity of local leaf and root extracts of Vernonia amygdalina significantly improved the overall management of pyretic and inflammatory diseases at the grass root and strongly discouraged the dependence of imported drugs for same illnesses.  This paper therefore has health policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications. 


6. Tirwomwe JF, Agwu E, M. Samula, [2013]. The magnitude of tooth bud extraction in Uganda International journal of medicine and medical science. vol 5 (10), pp.450-455


Impact: This paper showed that toothbud extraction in Uganda significantly and positively affects the epidemiology of oral disease among local inhabitants of resource limited settings like Uganda.    


7. Ezeonwumelu JOC, Omolo RG, Ajayi AM, Agwu E, Tanayen JK, Adiukwu CP, Oyewale AA, Adzu B, Okoruwa AG and Ogbonnia SO. 2012. Studies of Phytochemical screaning, acute toxicity, and anti-diarrhoea effect of aqueous extract of Kenyan Tithonia diversiflia leaves in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 3 (3): 127-134.

 Impact: This paper is a proof that local aqueous extract of Kenyan Tithonia diversiflia leaves: have anti-diarrhoea effect, is fit for human consumption, improved the management of diarrhoea at the grass root and discouraged the overdependence of imported drugs for diarrhoea management in resource limited settings. This paper therefore has policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications. 

 8. Agwu E. [2011] Distribution of Community acquired typhoid fever among febrile patients attending clinics in Bushenyi, Uganda: case study of the year 2005. Journal of Medical Microbiology and Diagnosis. Vol 1, issue 101, pages 1-4, (http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0703.1000101 )


Impact: This paper confirmed that typhoid fever is highly prevalent among patients clinically diagnosed with febrile illness and deserves equal attention given to other agents of febrile illness if the patients’ health condition is to be ameliorated. This paper therefore has policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications.


9. Ezera Agwu, John C. Ihongbe, Brenda A. McManus, Gary P. Moran, David C. Coleman and Derek J. Sullivan. 2011 Distribution of yeast species associated with oro-pharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients in Southwest Uganda. Medical Mycology. Medical Mycology,1–5 , http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13693786.2011.604862   


Impact: This paper confirmed that the change of yeast population pre-dominating oral lesions of HIV/AIDS,   from Candida albicans to non-Candida albicans (known to inherently resist conventional antifungals), explained the persistent oral lesions observed among the studied population. This should guide the review of the treatment protocol in yeast research. This paper clearly improved our detailed knowledge of yeast population found in the oral lesions of HIV/AIDS patients receiving routine nystatine and cotrimoxazole per unit time, and has since its publication positively improved oral lesions management outcome. The result has policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications.


10. E. Agwu, V. Pazos, J. C. Ihongbe & J. Ssengendo (2011): Appraisal of the inherent socio-demographic dynamics of HIV/AIDS epidemic in four districts of South-Western Uganda, SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An Open Access Journal, 8:3, 150-155


Impact: This manuscript confirmed that characteristic changing aspects of socio-demographic factors related to HIV/AIDS distribution was responsible for continued escalation of HIV/AIDS pandemic even when biomedical and clinical research recommendations are fully implemented in the studied population. The result has health policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications 


11. Agwu E. The need for a Master of Sciences degree program in Microbiology in Uganda. African Journal of Health Professions Education, 2010, 2 (1): 21-22

 Impact: This paper confirmed the need for M. Sc. degree programs in Microbiology despite the existence of clinically based M. Med programs, to help to improve on biomedical research, academic and capacity building. Now there are many Uganda East Africa Universities has started the program. Increased research capacity output by locally trained Microbiologists confirms the significance.

 12. Agwu E., Ihongbe J.C. and Inyang N.J. Prevalence of Quinolone susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in delayed-healing diabetic foot ulcers in Ekpoma Nigeria. Wounds 2010; 4: 100-105.

 Impact: Delayed healing diabetic foot ulcers with microbial aetiology accelerates healing, when microbial aetiology is correctly identified and appropriate antibiotics administered. It is now clear that wound healing even in debilitating disease conditions is determined by underlying health conditions and appropriate diagnosis has significant impact on management and prognostic outcome. 


13. Agwu E, Ihongbe JC, Pazos V, Tirwomwe JF. Zero prevalence of parasites associated with oral lesions of HIV infected and AIDS patients in South Western Uganda. African Health Sciences 2009; 9(4): 239 – 244


Impact: This paper confirms that parasites are absent and may not be involved in causing oral lesions of HIV/AIDS among patients living in resource limited settings despite observed classical clinical signs and symptoms that could have suggested otherwise and implicated the parasites. Laboratory exclusion of parasites clinically implicated in oral disease is promising good news for oral lesion management in patients with debilitating disease conditions. The result has health policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications 


14. Ojulong J, Mwambu T, Joloba M, Agwu E, Bwanga F, Najjuka C & Kaddu-Mulindwa D. Prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among isolates from surgical site infections in Mulago hospital- Kampala, Uganda. The Internet Journal of Infectious Diseases 2009 Volume 7 Number 2


Impact: This paper showed that surgical sites were predominated by Methicillin resistant AIDS defining Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. This information impacted positively on surgical sites wound management in resource limited settings. The result has health policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications.



15. Agwu E., Ihongbe J.C., Okogun G.R.A., Inyang, N.J. High incidence of co-infection with malaria and typhoid in febrile HIV Infected and AIDS patients in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiol 2009; 40 (2):329-332


Impact: This paper showed that haemolytic anaemia in febrile HIV/AIDS disease was caused by malaria and typhoid and also confirmed the known fact that co-infection of Bacteria, parasite and virus explained the poor prognosis seen among studied population. Thus malaria and typhoid helped HIV disease fast progression to AIDS by deep tissue inflammation and subsequent increased leukocyte migration while reduction of leukocyte population at inflamed site assisted faster establishment of malaria and typhoid by Plasmodium and Salmonella species respectively. The result has health policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications 


16. Ihongbe J.C., Agwu E., Inyang N.J., Pneumococcal pneumonia complicates presentation of pulmonary Tb & pseudomembranous candidiasis, predictive of unknown HIV infection in Ekpoma Nigeria: Internet J Micro. 2008; 5 (2)


Impact: This paper showed that the magnitude of co-infection between pneumonia and tuberculosis and we also outlined how pseudomembranous candidiasis can act as a predictor of unknown HIV infection status in resource limited settings. Understanding the fact that a major disease like pneumonia complicated Tb presentation by acting as under lying disease easily missed in routine diagnosis and use of certain oral lesions as predictor of unknown HIV disease status is promising and has positive prognostic value. The result has health policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications 


17. Agwu E., Ihongbe J.C., Tirwomwe J.F., Pazos V. Tirwomwe M. and Casadesus L. Appraisal of Oral Lesions status of HIV/AIDS Patients in South Western Uganda. Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences 2008; 7, (26): 1591-1595


Impact: In this paper, defining the magnitude of oral lesions by situational assessment of the oral lesions status of HIV/AIDS patients significantly impacted on the overall prognosis of the studied population. Apparent malnutrition among most of the participants who sparingly used their mouth for food impacted positively on the need for further research to restore the mouth to the patients. The result has health policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications 


18. Agwu E, Ihongbe JC, Okogun GRA, Ezeonwumelu JOC, Igbinovia O. Chromobacterium violacium associated with recurrent vaginal discharge among apparently healthy females in Ekpoma Nigeria. OJHAS, 2007, 1: 2.


Impact: In this paper, the discovery of Chromobacterium violacium involvement in recurrent vaginal discharge different from the known agents significantly impacted on the treatment outcome and definitely had health policy, research, academic, clinical and public health implications 


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